Learner expectation as a factor of mobile learning

iPads in lectures, by Mike Cogh on Twitter

iPads in lectures, by Mike Cogh on Flickr

The JISC Mobile Learning Infokit quotes NUS research: “the percentage of students who feel that ICT usage has enhanced their experience of studying has actually decreased, from 46% in 2009 to 42% in 2010,” (NUS, 2010) and goes on to suggest that students’ dissatisfaction with technology in education might largely originate in the disconnect between what the institution provides and what they themselves own. (JISC, 2011)

According to the Horizon 2011 report, internet-capable mobile devices will outnumber computers within the following year, and by 2015, 80% of people accessing the Internet will be doing so from mobile devices. (NewMediaConsortium, 2011)

Most universities employ a VLE or LMS, and by policy it is this designed-for-desktop environment through which learning material is distributed; any other channel is considered complementary. While the practical need to do this is clear, it is also clear that this policy, like every other, has a sell-by date. So far, I do not have evidence nor even the impression that students are demanding that their learning material be made available on mobile devices. It may be that no one is really asking them, or that students are not yet thinking of their own mobile devices as agents for learning, or that I haven’t looked hard enough yet. However, what is beyond dispute is that the numbers of students owning more, and more powerful, mobile devices. is increasing. In the second half of 2012, a study revealed that 51% ofpeople in the UK own a smartphone. (ThePaypers, 2012) I do wonder how long students who have never experienced student life without a smartphone or tablet, and who are paying exponentially more in fees than their predecessors, will accept that they cannot access their material on their own device of choice, especially if that device is one which fits seamlessly into most other areas of their lives.

Here at University of Leicester where we use Blackboard as our VLE, the Blackboard Mobile Learn app and our university-contextualised LeicesterUni app were launched this past autumn. The launch was quiet, and yet, over 7000 unique downloads of the Blackboard app have been registered, and these numbers continue to grow. In the two weeks up to 21st February 2013, for example, downloads to iOS devices have increased 3.6%, downloads to Android devices have increased 2.9%, and downloads to Blackberry have increased 0.9%. Educational sector stakeholders need to both engage with each other and keep an eye on such statistics in order to relevantly address the changing requirements of mobile learning.

JISC. (2011). Mobile Learning infokit / Home. Retrieved August 22, 2012, from https://mobilelearninginfokit.pbworks.com/w/page/41122430/Home
NewMediaConsortium. (2011). 2011 Horizon Report. Horizon Report. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from http://www.educause.edu/library/resources/2011-horizon-report
NUS. (2010). NUS/HSBC Student Experience Report: Teaching and Learning. Student Experience Report. Retrieved February 22, 2013, from http://www.nusconnect.org.uk/news/article/6010/1438/
ThePaypers. (2012). The Paypers. Insights in payments. Retrieved January 3, 2013, from http://www.thepaypers.com/news/mobile-payments/smartphone-adoption-in-uk-reaches-51-students-lead-the-way/747745-16

Terese Bird
Learning Technologist, Institute of Learning Innovation, University of Leicester

Toward a mobile learning strategy

Based on the JISC Mobile Learning InfoKit, with my additional points based on recent developments in mobile learning as well as on our own observations through the Places mobile learning evaluation project:

In order for a school or university to strategically implement mobile learning, it must, as an institution:
• put learners at the centre
• ensure staff are on board and kept in the communication and policy loop
• consider cultural implications of employing technology often used for leisure
• consider cultural and other implications of expecting students to use their own equipment in their learning (in BYOD initiatives)
• consider cost including institutional wireless capacity, charging, and furniture in learning spaces
• plan for sustainability

Mobile charging station -- a lucrative small business in some African countries. Photo by Adam Cohn on Flickr

Mobile charging station — a lucrative small business in some African countries. Photo by Adam Cohn on Flickr

Every institution will come at this differently, tackling these issues at different times and in different orders. Many find that the first mobile learning initiative serves as a Trojan Horse for further innovation, especially when previously disparate parties come together to accomplish such a project. At University of Leicester, the initial success of the ‘one-iPad-per-distance-Masters-student’ Criminology programme paved the way for a second one-iPad-per-student programme in the School of Education, and an attempted one-Kindle-per-student programme; this was a natural outcome since many questions and reservations were already resolved.

It is therefore worthwhile to consider some ‘quick win’ mobile learning scenarios:

1. Add a mobile stylesheet to the institutional website — so that any mobile device will nicely display the site
2. Add a mobile-friendly front end to an RSS feed. For example, many universities broadcast news via a blog, which creates an RSS feed. When this is run through Google Feedburner, a mobile-friendly RSS feed is created.
3. Set up social media accounts to broadcast news and updates.
4. Turn on the mobile version of your VLE or LMS. At University of Leicester, we began to make use of the Blackboard Mobile Learn app last autumn. This is not a free option within Blackboard, however.
5. Invest in secure SMS text messaging services on behalf of the institution. Sending texts to let students know a lecture has been cancelled is usually very well appreciated.
6. Try making some learning materials available not only as Word documents but as pdf (viewable on all mobile devices) and epub, and ask students for feedback on how they look on their devices. The free software Calibre easily converts a document to epub. It is best to save a Word document first as html, then import into Calibre, then convert to epub. Additionally it can be converted to mobi pocket, the format for Kindles.

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist and SCORE Research Fellow, University of Leicester

Creating learning materials optimised for mobile devices

For the past several days, I have had the privilege to attend the MobiLearnAsia 2012 Conference in Singapore. The conference has been really excellent, with great opportunities to discuss mobile learning innovation in the Pacific Asian context — which is energetic and imaginative.

The view at Resorts World, Sentosa, Singapore, the site of the MobiLearnAsia 2012 Conference

I was able to present on the Places project, specifically the University of Leicester Criminology MSc in Security, Conflict, and International Development.  I have still not found another use of tablet computers in distance learning like this one. One outcome I am seeing so far, is that it is not clear that sending students an iPad and giving them Amazon vouchers for ebooks is a successful way of giving everyone the ebooks they need. One person lives in a country to whom Amazon does not sell (Sudan) and so this student could not get the ebooks at all. One other comment by a student said that s/he was not yet in the habit of using the iPad for the readings. We will need to tease out the specific issues in upcoming evaluation.

Something else that has become clear to me: instructors and other staff need to know how to simply create learning materials that are optimised for mobile devices. I have begun to create some helpsheets, and post my first offerings here. Let me know if you have any comments!

Using Calibre to create ebooks for ereaders

Using Prezi to create map-based virtual tours

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist

Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester

Introducing Places

Welcome to the first blog post of Places, a new JISC Transformations Programme project being carried out at University of Leicester. There are different strands to the Transformations Programme projects. Places will be studying, within the strand of enhanced student experience, the use of iPads in several University of Leicester programmes — most notably, in the Criminology Masters in Security, Conflict, and International Development. In this distance learning programme, every student is sent an iPad and is given instructions to download a custom-made app for the course. Students taking part in this programme are located anywhere in the world, and often in conflict zones. We thought ‘Places’ would be an appropriate project name, highlighting the ‘anywhere’ affordance of mobile technology in learning.

Troops in Iraq making use of mobile technology.             Photo courtesy of The USO.

The first stage of the project is to examine the literature and learn from mobile-technology-in-learning projects that have gone before us. I am reading the final reports of JISC projects such as iBorrow, in which students could borrow laptops short-term for learning in the library at Canterbury Christ Church University, and also Project Erewhon at University of Oxford, which investigated the uses of geo-spacial and mobile computing in both higher and further education.

Of course, we will be very much informed by our own DUCKLING project which ran from 2008 through 2010, and which studied amongst other innovations the use of ebook readers as a course material delivery device for distance masters students. I was learning technologist on DUCKLING, and saw close-up the difficulties and successes of the approach, from the points of view of both staff and students. I am very much looking forward to similarly evaluating the use of iPads in our criminology and other programmes.

I created a Mendeley group called MobileLearn HE in which I’m gathering reports, journal articles, case studies, and blog posts on this topic. The group is public and I welcome you to join in. Please suggest case studies and papers you know of, on the topic of mobile learning in HE. Or suggest a case study or example via the comments below!

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist and SCORE Research Fellow, University of Leicester