Toward a mobile learning strategy

Based on the JISC Mobile Learning InfoKit, with my additional points based on recent developments in mobile learning as well as on our own observations through the Places mobile learning evaluation project:

In order for a school or university to strategically implement mobile learning, it must, as an institution:
• put learners at the centre
• ensure staff are on board and kept in the communication and policy loop
• consider cultural implications of employing technology often used for leisure
• consider cultural and other implications of expecting students to use their own equipment in their learning (in BYOD initiatives)
• consider cost including institutional wireless capacity, charging, and furniture in learning spaces
• plan for sustainability

Mobile charging station -- a lucrative small business in some African countries. Photo by Adam Cohn on Flickr

Mobile charging station — a lucrative small business in some African countries. Photo by Adam Cohn on Flickr

Every institution will come at this differently, tackling these issues at different times and in different orders. Many find that the first mobile learning initiative serves as a Trojan Horse for further innovation, especially when previously disparate parties come together to accomplish such a project. At University of Leicester, the initial success of the ‘one-iPad-per-distance-Masters-student’ Criminology programme paved the way for a second one-iPad-per-student programme in the School of Education, and an attempted one-Kindle-per-student programme; this was a natural outcome since many questions and reservations were already resolved.

It is therefore worthwhile to consider some ‘quick win’ mobile learning scenarios:

1. Add a mobile stylesheet to the institutional website — so that any mobile device will nicely display the site
2. Add a mobile-friendly front end to an RSS feed. For example, many universities broadcast news via a blog, which creates an RSS feed. When this is run through Google Feedburner, a mobile-friendly RSS feed is created.
3. Set up social media accounts to broadcast news and updates.
4. Turn on the mobile version of your VLE or LMS. At University of Leicester, we began to make use of the Blackboard Mobile Learn app last autumn. This is not a free option within Blackboard, however.
5. Invest in secure SMS text messaging services on behalf of the institution. Sending texts to let students know a lecture has been cancelled is usually very well appreciated.
6. Try making some learning materials available not only as Word documents but as pdf (viewable on all mobile devices) and epub, and ask students for feedback on how they look on their devices. The free software Calibre easily converts a document to epub. It is best to save a Word document first as html, then import into Calibre, then convert to epub. Additionally it can be converted to mobi pocket, the format for Kindles.

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist and SCORE Research Fellow, University of Leicester

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Tangible benefits of mobile learning

This is the second in my series of blog posts looking at the JISC Mobile Learning infoKit, published in 2011 and available here. My blog posts in effect re-purpose the infoKit as they consist of my notes and thoughts on what has changed in the mobile learning terrain especially in the light of evidence being found and discussed in the Places project, evaluating the use of tablet PCs at University of Leicester. To give further background, I also worked on the DUCKLING project and keep referring to findings from the e-book reader case studies in that project (in which we pre-loaded simple e-book readers with learning material and shipped to distance students in lieu of much printed material and notes).

Introduction (continued)

Why Mobile Learning?

“Looking at mobile learning in a wider context, we have to recognize that mobile, personal, and wireless devices are now radically transforming societal notions of discourse and knowledge, and are responsible for new forms of art, employment, language, commerce, deprivation, and crime, as well as learning.” (Traxler, 2009)

Although Traxler rightly points out negative products of mobile device use, his key point of ‘transforming societal notions of discourse and knowledge’ reveals why educational institutions must incorporate these notions if they are to remain relevant.

Tangible Benefits

A very useful list of measurable mobile learning benefits is proposed in the infoKit. I mark each benefit we saw in the DUCKLING e-book reader study, and benefits we are seeing in Places tablet PC studies:

  1. Personal, private and familiar – the ‘personalness’ reduces the sense of obstacles to learning –DUCKLING, Places
  2. Pervasive and ubiquitous – DUCKLING, Places
  3. Fitting into the lives of learners – allowing user to make use of even spare 10 minutes – DUCKLING, Places
  4. Portable – enabling learning in any place and at any time – DUCKLING, Places
  5. Immediacy of communication – Places
  6. Bringing learning to those in remote or isolated areas – DUCKLING, Places
  7. Location-aware contextualisation – GPS capability
  8. Immediate capture of data and learning processes – camera, video, sound recording, text input – Places
  9. On-the-move access to tutors and peers- Places
  10. Learners can receive reminders and chasers – Places?
  11. Bite-sized resources – helpful when learning skills or on-the-job – DUCKLING, Places
  12. Abstract and concrete knowledge can be integrated – Places
  13. Peer-to-peer network fosters student-centred learning – Places
  14. Promotes active learning – Places
  15. Enables new learning environments
  16. Accessibility – DUCKLING, Places
  17. Enables reflection close to the learning event (in both time and place) – Places?
  18. Reduces technical barriers to e-learning- DUCKLING, Places

Now that I’m considering the DUCKLING use of simple e-book readers by busy distance masters students, and the Places use (also by busy distance masters students) of the iPad with the bespoke app containing multimedia learning materials, I see that in both, the main use of the device is to serve to the students learning materials created by instructors, and the main intended benefit that they can carry around all of this learning material and study it anytime, anywhere. No communication was possible using the e-book reader, but of course it is possible with the iPad. With the iPad, students are encouraged to use Twitter to keep in touch with their tutor, and to use discussion boards to discuss with tutor and peers. Knowledge creation or capture using the iPad was not exactly designed into the course; however, students are reporting new study strategies they are developing with new apps they discover, such as a mind-mapping tool and Evernote for storing notes in the cloud.

I wrote ‘Places?’ next to those benefits which are possible with the iPad, but for which I have not yet seen evidence from the students.

There are a couple of other examples of mobile learning which deliver obvious benefits but which fall outside of my two projects, which I’d like to note. One is the use of mobiles as a field notebook; for example, students are walking around, observing plants, taking photos, making notes, measuring, comparing, filming live action. They might be storing this data only on their own devices, or they could be saving everything to a central location in the cloud. This corresponds to benefits 7, 8, 12, 14, 15, 17, and 18.

The other notable example is the use of iPhones at University of Leeds medical school (Apple, 2011). 4th and 5th year medical students are loaned iPhones which are loaded with many key medical and pharmaceutical texts, as well as medical apps, so that right in the clinic they may check references, note issues arising, and use many other useful medical apps, with an iPhone which is more hygenic for being on the wards than is a traditional notebook. I would say this use demonstrates every benefit in the list except possibly number 6.

Have you encountered other tangible benefits of mobile use not in the above list? Leave a comment!

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist, University of Leicester

Apple. (2011). Apple (United Kingdom) – Education – Profiles – Leeds School of Medicine changes learning culture with work-based iPhones. Apple Education Case studies. Retrieved January 6, 2013, from http://www.apple.com/uk/education/profiles/leeds-uni/

Traxler, J. (2009). Current State of Mobile Learning. (M. Ally, Ed.)Mobile Learning Transforming the Delivery of Education and Training, 5(2), 9–24. Retrieved from http://www.aupress.ca/books/120155/ebook/01_Mohamed_Ally_2009-Article1.pdf

DIY Multimedia Ebooks for Distance Students

Our colleague Phil Wood of the University of Leicester School of Education has recently launched a new distance masters program in which students are furnished with iPads. The iPads are not preinstalled with anything. (I don’t even know if it’s possible to do that). Phil wrote the course material first and released it on our university VLE Blackboard. Then he turned his attention to formatting the material for the iPad and decided to use iBooks Author. iBooks Author is for Macs only and is free if you have the latest version of the Mac OS. Phil decided to use this because it is easy to use, offers lovely templates and easily accommodates multimedia such as video and podcasts.

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Phil demonstrated his DIY ebook for delegates from the Open University of China at a session 23rd of November, 2012, at Beyond Distance, University of Leicester

Phil reported it was not very difficult to cut and paste the already written material into iBooks Author; it required about 10 hours to do 101 pages. The difficulty was that once he imported videos and podcasts, the ebook was over 500 MB in size. The problem then was how to transfer this document onto the students’ iPads in remote locations. For some reason even smaller portions of the book could not be transferred through Blackboard. I need to get to the bottom of the technical reasons for that.

In the end the best option was to use iTunes U Course Manager. This is possible to use even though our university is not yet launched our iTunes U channel. Phil created a new course using Safari on his computer; all he needed was his own Apple ID. For the Course Material, he uploaded his new ebook.

Phil emailed me the link so I could test it; I was the first to enrol on his new course. I selected the ebook to download; it took about 10 minutes to download it onto my iPad 1, while I was sitting in my kitchen at 9.30pm, using Virgin broadband. At first I could read everything but not view the multimedia; that was because I had not upgraded to the latest iBooks. So I upgraded, and everything played perfectly. Phil emailed his students with the private link to his course; when I spoke to him a day or two later, Phil reported that roughly one-third to one-half of the students had already enrolled in the course to access the ebook, and no problems had yet been reported. These students are located all around the world.

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iBooks Author saves in the formats .ibooks (for the Apple iBooks app), .pdf and text.

If and when I learn whether students experience issues, I will blog about it here.

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist and SCORE Research Fellow, University of Leicester

 

iPad use in UK Higher Education

As I am a member of the Association for Learning Technology (and even have my CMALT!), I am involved in the ALT mailing list. A few days ago, someone asked what use of iPads is happening amongst the higher education institutions of the UK. Of course I mentioned our project, Places, which is evaluating the use of iPads in two distance learning masters programmes of the University of Leicester.

How I use my iPad – Nathan Huneke from Manchester Medical School on Vimeo.

Several other uses of iPads emerged from the email discussion:

Imperial College  Business School gave out over 650 iPads to MSc and MBA students as part of a move to seamless learning via paperless delivery. Article here:

http://www.ft.com/cms/s/0/2815f872-1e1e-11e2-8e1d-00144feabdc0.html.

700 students who used iPads at Manchester Medical School, not yet written up and published, but here is a qualitative view (the video in this blog is from this Vimeo channel:

http://vimeo.com/album/2002695

From Msc Intl Business at Leeds University Business School, the website now includes a first, mid-semester evaluation of what we have done so far with iPads:

http://ipadsatleeds.wordpress.com

And Networked Learning Technologies in Art and Design:

www.elearningartdesign.org/ipads/

I am sure there are many more. If you are aware of an iPad or other tablet use in Higher Education or Further Education in the UK, please leave a comment and let us know!

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist, University of Leicester

iPad as e-book reader: we need more data

The MSc in Security, Conflict, and International Development, was the focus of two papers I presented at the MobiLearnAsia 2012 Conference in Sentosa, Singapore, 24-26 October. This MSc course at the University of Leicester provides an iPad to each student; students are located all over the world, largely in conflict zones.

I presented Mummies, War Zones, and Pompeii: the use of tablet computers in situated and on-the-go learning, and also Embedded E-books and E-readers in  Distance Education. This second presentation is particularly interesting to our Places project, because it shows how the use of iPads in the MSc in Security programme is building on the use of e-readers in Psych and Education  Masters, which was done in the DUCKLING Project. It is great to see how research done in a previous project is being continued and developed, and taking some unexpected turns.

Information assistants carrying iPads at Changi Airport in Singapore

The e-book readers in DUCKLING were pretty basic, the Sony PRS 505, the only model available for purchase in the UK in 2009 which is when DUCKLiNG happened.  We pre-loaded the learning materials, then shipped the devices to students around the world. Because of copyright issues, we could only succeed in including one book on the e-readers, in addition to our instructor-authored learning materials. Time-poor students found the e-readers very helpful to keep up on reading in a convenient, accessible psckage, because they could make use of even 10 minutes during the day. One student felt using the e-reader helped her to focus on assigned reading and achieve better marks in assignments.

In the case of the iPads for MSc In Security, nothing is preloaded; the iPad is simply shipped to the student w instructions to download the free, custom-made app (called ‘SCID’, and it is free in the Apple store). The student downloads the app and has the course information from a single handy source. The student is also given Amazon book vouchers so as to purchase some of the recommended readings for the course.

So far students are very positive about both the app and the iPad, but less positive about e-books on the iPad. One person lives in a country in which Amazon books cannot be purchased. Another person commented thats/he had not yet gotten into the habit of using the iPad for all of the readings.

We need more data to be sure, but in our case, e-books on the iPad don’t seem to be quite as popular as the app, about which students are definitely very positive. Why is this? Is it because we did not pre-install the readings? It does seem clear that in DUCKLING, students liked having the readings pre-installed on the e-book reader. Is it because the iPad is not as easy-on -the-eyes as an e-ink e-reader? We have not asked enough questions yet to make any conclusions at all, but we hope to establish whether the iPad is a successful e-book reader for these distance students.

Finally, we have received word that another distance program at Leicesteer is considering a one-mobile-device-per-student model, but this one may feature not iPads but e-book readers. It would be good if we could get even a bit of data on that one for our Places project as well.

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist, Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester

Creating learning materials optimised for mobile devices

For the past several days, I have had the privilege to attend the MobiLearnAsia 2012 Conference in Singapore. The conference has been really excellent, with great opportunities to discuss mobile learning innovation in the Pacific Asian context — which is energetic and imaginative.

The view at Resorts World, Sentosa, Singapore, the site of the MobiLearnAsia 2012 Conference

I was able to present on the Places project, specifically the University of Leicester Criminology MSc in Security, Conflict, and International Development.  I have still not found another use of tablet computers in distance learning like this one. One outcome I am seeing so far, is that it is not clear that sending students an iPad and giving them Amazon vouchers for ebooks is a successful way of giving everyone the ebooks they need. One person lives in a country to whom Amazon does not sell (Sudan) and so this student could not get the ebooks at all. One other comment by a student said that s/he was not yet in the habit of using the iPad for the readings. We will need to tease out the specific issues in upcoming evaluation.

Something else that has become clear to me: instructors and other staff need to know how to simply create learning materials that are optimised for mobile devices. I have begun to create some helpsheets, and post my first offerings here. Let me know if you have any comments!

Using Calibre to create ebooks for ereaders

Using Prezi to create map-based virtual tours

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist

Beyond Distance Research Alliance, University of Leicester

Mummies, War Zones, and Pompeii: the use of tablet computers in situated and on-the-go learning

Two weeks ago I presented ‘Mummies, War Zones, and Pompeii: the use of tablet computers in situated and on-the-go learning,’ at ALT-C, the annual conference of the Association for Learning Technology, which took place this year in Manchester. Tablet computers in learning is not new; mathematics and physics teaching especially has long benefited from the ability to scribble a formula and share out to students and receive students’ formulae in return — one use of in-class tablet computers. It didn’t take long after the launch of the iPad in 2010 for one-iPad-per-student projects to spring up in every level of education.

The case studies I presented on, however, made use of the out-of-class benefits of tablet computers. I describe each in a nutshell:

1) Mummies: University of Leicester Museum Studies masters students take field trips to such destinations as the British Museum. After the trip, students report back, group by group, and discuss as a class. Using cleverly-designed Powerpoint shows on Windows tablets, instructors gave students video interviews with British Museum academics and other learning material. Carrying the tablets around the museum, students viewed and learnt from the material while standing before the actual artefacts, took notes and photos, and created presentation reports in time for a 10am deadline next morning. The project has been felt to be a great success and plans are underway to create material for further, different field trips.

2) War Zones: University of Leicester Criminology students of the online Masters in Security, Conflict and International Development are each sent an iPad and instructed to download the free app (yes, you can download it too! It’s called SCID).  The app serves multimedia learning material which works on the iPad whether or not there is an internet connection, which is key because for their day jobs these students are visiting refugee camps or living in a submarine for weeks at a time. Early feedback is overwhelmingly positive for both iPad and app.

3) Pompeii: In the Porta Stabia project and the Quadriporticus Project (directed by Steven Ellis of University of Cincinnati and Eric Poehler of University of Massachusetts, and in which some of our University of Leicester Archaeology colleagues joined in the research), iPads were taken into the ruins of Pompeii to process photographs of the ruins and overlay archaeological layers. iPads were also used as field notebooks in every way, including receiving data into Filemaker Pro to be later synced with data collected by all iPads. The end result was an efficiency increase of 371% plus other benefits.

These case studies illustrate the power of mobile outside of the classroom, in what I refer to as situated and on-the-go learning. I’m especially interested in this kind of use of mobile devices; please comment if you know of any other great case studies along these lines.

Terese Bird, Learning Technologist and SCORE Research Fellow